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Ideas for Regenerative Braking!
Feb. 7, 2008
A Regenarative Braking System, that would also improve upshifting the transmission and slow the main motor down for faster and easier shifting, even though this will not improve any down shifts.
See the "S10 EV Wiring Diagrams" link for the circuit detail.
Dec. 10, 2007
The Air Conditioning clutch has been bored out from a taper bore to a straight bore and keyed to mate to the aux. shaft on the motor.
Dec. 11, 2007
I slid the ac clutch assembly on the motor shaft to see how it will look. The ac clutch will allow me to experiment with several regeneration devices and will be efficient in that the ac clutch will only rotate when regenerating. I will need a machined collar and a special shouldered washer to hold the ac clutch in the proper position and hold the whole thing in place with the bolt on the end of the aux. shaft. I will have to make a bracket to mount the Tach sensor for the end of the motor shaft that would go around the ac pulley and mount to the motor end face plate.
Dec. 13, 2007
I thought about how the torque bars are directional in the ac clutch assembly and decided the flat bars need to be turned so that the starting torque of the ac. clutch engaging will be pulling on the bars to start the outer pulley, rather than the bars trying to push the outer pulley. This is the reverse of a normal ac. clutch operation, where the starting torque is applied to the center shaft vs. the center shaft supplying torque to the pulley, even though the pulley rotation is the same direction. I ground the outer rivet heads off and used a pin punch to drive the rivets out. Then I rotated the torque bars the reverse direction, used 5 mm. bolts, heated red hot, with a torch and them riveted down with a pin punch and hammer to rivet the assembly back together.
Dec. 14, 2007
I filed the mounting bracket so the threaded end bolt holes of the Warp 9 motor would hold the ac. clutch magnetic coil. This has to be centered inside the clutch assembly.
Dec. 17, 2007
This is the collar that fits on the motor aux. shaft for a spacer to keep the ac clutch properly spaced for the magnetic coil not to rub, it is a slip fit on the 7/8" shaft. Then the ac clutch goes back on.
Feb. 3, 2008
Momentary regeneration would be COOL! ...... I will go find some HELP!
I like the idea of using an alternator for regeneration and also to slow the main motor for faster and easier shifting, even though this will not improve any down shifts, it would also give me the option of regenerating power when wanted by pressing the shifter button, and still have braking regeneration when the brakes are used. .....Where is an E.E. When you need one? ;-).
I removed the 4 speed transmission knob and will drill and fit it with a momentary contact push button switch, Radio Shack #275-646
Feb. 4, 2008
I set the knob up in a drill press and drilled a 1/2" hole for the switch and then drilled a smaller hole at an angle from the bottom of the threaded knob to intersect the 1/2" hole and treaded the wire into the knob, placed heat shrink tubing on the wires before I soldered the switch on and pressed it in the knob. I will put some heat shrink tubing over the wires when I install the knob on the shifter lever.
I bought a used Prestolite 140 Amp. 12 volt alternator on eBay, it will be rewound with smaller diameter wire and add more turns to get the >154 DC volts to charge the batteries during regeneration..
I built a bracket for the alternator and will find a way to weld it securely to the motor mount bracket.
I will have the pulley bored to 7/8" to fit the alternator.
Mar. 3, 2008
I found a stock GM alternator 2 groove pulley at the local wrecking yard.
The GM pulley had a bore of 5/8", so I had a steel plug made and then pressed into the GM pulley and then the whole assembly was bored to 7/8" to fit the Prestolite Alternator shaft.
I may have to put a spacer between the pulley and the fan to keep the belts away from the face of the fan.
Mar. 27, 2008
Installed the switch on the transmission shifter.
Ran the wires through clear heat scrink tubing and out under the transmission boot.
Apr. 18, 2008
I made a very crude tool inserted through the alternator mounting bolt holes, to help me get the bracket for the alternator pulley in alignment with the motor shaft and also the electric clutch.
I don't want to get the motor burnt with the hot weld, so, I just tack welded the alternator bracket in position.
To get as close as possible to where I was welding, I connected the welder ground lead directly to the motor mount bolt.
I will remove the top motor mount and weld them together.
Apr. 19, 2008
I removed the top motor mount and welded the alternator bracket to it.
I bought a 1/2" wide belt 32" long, it is about 2" too short, will exchange it for a longer one.
Apr. 21, 2008
I exchanged the short belt for a belt 1/2" wide and 35" long, it just fits.
Apr. 24, 2008
Bought a belt tightener bracket at Schucks Auto Parts. It is a few inches too long.
Apr. 25, 2008
I made a bracket for the tightener and mounted it on the alternator mount. I also removed a couple of inches from the belt tightener bracket and redrilled the pivot hole.
Batteries and nested Alternator
Jun. 13, 2008
I am finally getting back to the regeneration control stuff.
I decided on a mounting location for the lighted main "off/on" regeneration switch, fuse holder and alternator "field energized" indicator LED.
I added a second brake switch for to power the relay that energizes the alternator field windings.
I soldered 2 brake switch bushings together to make a larger bushing to hold the brake switch in the large bracket hole.
I used 1/4" male spade connectors to bring the power out of the fuse panel.
Jun. 16, 2008
I worked on getting the regeneration relay mounted and wired.
The easiest location was on the steering brace.
I reused the S10 fuel pump relay, because it fit it's own mounting bracket and it already had the suppression resistor built in as OEM.
Jun. 18, 2008
I need to have a sleeve machined to fit over the motor aux. shaft to hold the tachometer sensor.
Jun. 23, 2008
I had my friend machine me a special adaptor for the end of the motor shaft to mount the tach. sensor.
I cut a 3/16 steel key for the electric clutch hub, and assembled it on the shaft.
I used a 1/4" bolt to pull the adaptor on the motor shaft and up against the clutch hub.
Looks like I gave myself too much length in the adaptor, I will pull it back off and have an 1" machined off the length of the adaptor.
Holy Cow! I can't get it back off!
I threaded the 1/4" hole, in the end of the adaptor, with a 5/16" tap and used a 5/16" bolt, nut and spacers to pull the adaptor back off.
I will put 5/16" bolt threads in the end of the shortened adaptor after I get it back from the machine shop, otherwise, I will have to put the threads in the adaptor from under the truck (again).
Jun. 25, 2008
I have the sleeve back and got the bracket made for the tachometer sensor, (see "Gauges" in menu for the description).
Jun. 26, 2008
I added a snubber diode to the electro. clutch power wire, covered the diode and the exposed leads with clear heat shrink tubing.
Then I connected it with a short sheetmetal screw &star washer to ground.
Jun. 29, 2008 & July 1, 2008
I am having second thoughts about being able to rewind the alternator with enough windings to get the needed >156 volts to charge the main battery pack when braking. I had found a booklet online entitled Alternator Secrets. Excellent and best of all free!
I have disassembled the alternator, each coil of the stator has 4 loops or coils of 16 Ga. wire.
July 3, 2008
I went to Idaho electric Motor Service and spoke with the owner "Chuck".
Chuck gave me the supplies I needed, to do the rewind in the "wave" pattern with 18 Ga. magnet wire.
I followed his instructions and used the MTM Scientific plans as a guide.
I cleaned the core slots with a 3 corner file and super glued in the insulated paper in the slots.
I make spacers for holding the wire in the slots from 3/16" wood dowels and short lengths of insulated automotive 14 ga. wire.
I was not sure how many coils of wire that I could get in every slot, so I wound 10 turns of wire in each slot.
After I had completed the 10 turns in all af the coils I decided that I still had enough room the get 6 more turns in each slot.
This will give me 4x the number of coils of wire than the stock alternator.
I am not sure if this will give me 4x the voltage, because I am connecting the windings in a "Wye" connection rather than the "Delta" as the stock alternator was setup.
I did not want to remove the wires that I had just wound into the coils, so.....
I joined more 18 ga. magnet wire to my leads with 1/2 of an insulated "butt" splice and put heat shrink over the splice.
To keep the coils tight, I kept pushing the wires down into the slots with a thin piece of plexiglass.
WOW! I was able to get a total of 16 loops of wire in each coil.
I test fit the stator in both end frames, it is very close!
I used RTV silicone to glue in small pieces of thin motor insulation (plastic) in areas where I was concerned about the coils contacting the frames.
To make sure that the output capacitor's metal can is isolated from the frame of the alternator, I wrapped the case of the metal can with insulated motor paper, secured it with wire ties and a drop of super glue.
I found the easiest way to get the insulation off of the wire was with a small file.
I connected the "Wye" connection, with a small butt splice, covered it with heat shrink.
I put heat shrink and ring terminals on the output leads.
I connected the field connections, one side to the frame and the other terminal to a short lead for a connector.
There is a whole "passel" of wire in there!
Note: To handle the higher voltage output of the alternator, I may have to change out the 6 diodes and the output capacitor to higher volt rated components.
I want to find 3 small motor thermal switches to put inside of the alternator next to the stator windings.
I will connect these in series with the field (rotor) windings to shut down the alternator if there is a over heat condition. (I found one supplier on eBay, I bought a lot of 5 of them and they are being shipped.)
July 7, 2008
It is high time to see if any of this hard work is going to pay off, (the thinking part is the hardest work).
I temporary connected the motor to 2 six volt batteries in series (12 Volts), crossed my fingers and held my breath...
SNAP, as the connection was made and the motor came to life for the first time!
I brough 12 volts from my acc. battery and touched it to the coil wire for the electric clutch. COOL.
The butterflies settled down when I didn't hear or feel anything unusual as the motor came to speed and then coasted to rest.
With the alternator mounted and the belts tight, we will spin it up again and bring on the alternator with a full 12 volts going to the alternator rotor, feild coil.
This is a no load test to see if it will even build any voltage at all.
Fingers crossed... here we go...
I am concerned about the rumbling noise coming from the alternator when it is under a load. ?
Next, I will find away to load the alternator and test the output while connected to a series of 6 volt batteries.
I suspect the alternator output will be substantially lower when connected to a string of 6 volt batteries in series.
July 11, 2008
I hooked up a Volt meter accross the outputs of the alternator and a Amp meter (in series) with the most positve battery cable and the Positive (+) output of the alternator and a string of 7 (6 Volt) batteries, for a total voltage of 42 volts.
If you look closely you will notice that the polarity of the battery leads to the Amp meter is reveresed, because if I connected them correctly the amp meter would be upside down and hard to read.
Because the string of batteries are 80% charged the resting voltage for the 7 battery string is about 44.5 volts.
Fingers crossed, spin the alternator up and see if the voltage increases and watch the amp meter show a flow of current from the alternator to the battery string of about 5 to 10 Amps.
I bought several high heat Thermal switches on eBay.
I will connect 3 of these switches in series (daisy chain fashon) with the power that feeds the rotor field coil.
The purpose of these switches is to shut down the alternator by disconnecting the power to the rotor field if the stator windings overheat.
These switches will be secured with wire ties to several different coils of the Stator.
I connected 3 of these heat switches in the lower area of the stator, secured with wire ties.
The switch wires crimped to the leads and covered with heat shrink tube.
I brought the leads out through the frame openings in the back of the case, connected a inline fuse and brought the other end to the field coil to the switched wire connection.
I decided that if I ever have an overheat condition, in the alternator, that I would like to be able to energize the electric clutch and keep the alternator spinning to aid in cooling.
I modified the regeneration wiring diagram to reflect this thought.
July 16, 2008
I have spent last evening trying to figure out, more like tearing my hair out!
Why, when I tested out the regeneration switchs in the Regeneration Circuit, that the 10 Amp fuse would "burn out" every time I switched the Aux. Cooling switch to "off" position.
I finally traced the grounding short back to the Lighted Toggle Switch!!!
Here is why the fuse was burning, inside of the lighted toggle switche(s), when the switch is switched to the "off" position the acc. (load) terminal
and the ground terminal are connected together!
I had to dissassemble the switches and insulate the ground terminal such that no contact was made with the switch slider.
I removed the ground terminal and filed it down about a 1/16" and then used a small "bent" piece of a plastic wire tie to cover, "insulate", that terminal.
I also made a small plastic pieced to lay over the exposed wire leads on the lamp inside of the switch, to keep the metal slider from contacting it.
I put everything back together and now the circuit tested out fine.
I bought a large plastic project box from Radio Shack, #270-1807, to mount the 2, 15 Amp DC circuit breakers, that I bought on eBay.
To have enough room to get the breakers in the project box, I smoothed down the 2 center ridges (inside of the project box),
I also, filed about 1/8" from one end of the circuit breakers.
I cut a square hole in the center of the project box lids and made sure the breakers fit inside.
July 17, 2008
I bought a weaterproof cover to install over the breakers for protection from the elements.
The best location I found to mount the Regeneration Breaker Box was next to the Heater Relay Control Box.
I used #6 sheet metal screws, with Fender Washers, to attach the box to the fender.
I drilled 5/8" holes for the wiring to the breakers.
I bought 3 sets of 10 ga. 12 foot, jumper cables for the regeneration wiring.
I also bought several packs of Noble #224, crimp on terminals.
I wired the cable ends to the alternator and covered the terminal ends with rubber boots.
For identification, I put Orange tape on the cables and ran them over to the Breaker box.
I removed the insulated sleeves from the terminal ends and replaced them with heatshrink tubing,
to get the breaker face plate box to fit with out warping in the middle.
July 18, 2008
I decided that the best location for the 4 blocking diodes would be inside of the regeneration circuit breaker box.
I used more of the #224 ring terminals for the connections and covered the diodes with 3/4" clear heat shrink tubing.
I tied the cables to lay flat behind the breakers and reassembled the breaker box.
I wonder if there needs to be cooling for the diodes & components in this box?
Answer, YES!, that I will need heat sinks for the diodes.
I need to find 2 heatsinks small enough that will fit into the box and still be large enough to cool the diodes.
I will likely need to add a pancake cooling fan to the box.
I tested the polarity of the connections, I was ready to start pulling my hair out, as, I was getting inconsistent Ohm readings.
I finally decided to use a different VOM. Yep, my favorite meter had gone bad. :(
With a different VOM, the diodes were isolating each wire from the others and the polarity was correct.
Everything checked out okay with the wiring,
I ran the cables under the front battery boxes and secured them with wire ties.
I also ran the cables along the right S10 frame to the rear battery back.
July 18, 2008
I ran the #10 cables the rest of the way down the right frame rail and over to where the 2 Audiopipe fuse holders.
These are the fuse holders that I had left after deciding not to use them on the Zilla board.
I bought 20 Amp 32 Volt fuses to use as a electrical safety burn out point.
Both of the cable connectors will connect to the same terminal of the #13 battery in the string.
Note: The current will travel both directions from here through the battery strings to the other ends connection.
July 22, 2008
I am building an enclosure for the heat sinks and diodes, using 4" plastic tubing, a 4" plactic cap and a 12 volt pancake cooling fan.
I am still looking for a suitable heat sink to use inside the plastic tube.
This is how I plan on mounting the cooling tube with the heat sinks inside of it.
July 25, 2008
I removed the cover from the regeneration breaker box and removed the 4 diodes.
I attached 2 relays to the box cover with #6 machine screws.
I soldered the kickback diodes across the coil connections with the band at the positive wire, and secured all of the wiring.
I tested switching the relays and when they are powered I have a connection to the positive battery terminal.
and when they are at rest, unpowered, I have a connection to the negative battery terminal.
It is sort of confusing but I think it is doing what needs to be switched.
I bought a single gauge panel to mount the gauge in, but the gauge is just a little smaller than the 2 1/16" panel hole so it will fall right threw the hole. :-(
I cut a piece of plastic wire cable cover to the same length as the circumference as the hole and slit it lengthwise and slipped it over the panel hole edge and cool now the gauge is held tightly in the panel.
Aug. 1, 2008
I selected what looks like the best location, close to the battery end connections, to install the Audiopipe fuse holders.
I installed 20 Amp. fuses for protection of the regeneration circuit.
I drilled the gauge panel mount for the A/B battery groups selector switch and soldered the wires on the switch.
Aug. 5, 2008
I mounted the Inductive Ammeter at the bottom of the dash tray.
I bent the Aluminum pickup plate on the back of the Ammeter to form around the wire sligthly, to hold the wire in the pickup plate.
I drilled holes in the firewall near the heater phenum, and put the proper size grommets in the holes to protect the cable and switching wire, then, I ran the wires out through the firewall.
Aug. 9, 2008
I bought a large heatsink on eBay, that is drilled for stud type diodes.
I cut the heat sink to have 2 pieces that will hold my blocking diodes.
Because the heat sinks are each connected to the outputs of the alternator (Positive & Negative), they will need to be insulated from each other.
I used 5/16" poly tubing, cut lengthwise and notched to fit around the cooling fins.
This will work electrical insulation between the 2 heat sinks.
I used wire ties and super glue to keep everything in place.
When I cut the heat sinks to fit inside of the 4" plastic pipe, I offset the heat sinks so that I would have better cooling of the rear diode.
It was a good push fit to get the heat sink assm. to go inside of the 4" plastic pipe.
Once I secure the cables coming from the diodes everything should stay in place.
I also drilled a 5/16" hole in the fan end of the tube at the bottom to let any moisture drain.
I mounted the tube with small angle braces at a slight down angle to the open end to prevent water from being trapped in the tube.
I was not able to find these localy so I ordered 2 , but only needed one (now I have a spare).
I moved the wiring on the regeneration circuit breakers so the all of those cables could run in one end of the plastic box, allowing space on the opposite end of the box for the relay and it's 6 heavy cables.
To help me not get any wires crossed and make future replacement of this relay easier, I wished that I could have found a relay socket for it. :-(
This regeneration system has been a major undertaking! I want to call this part, DONE!
Aug. 28, 2008
I have been driving the truck for the last 4 days to commute to and from work, about a 3 mile round trip.
The odometer on the truck does not work, so I have been using a GPS to calculate daily miles.
Today, on may cummute home, when in walking distance, at about 15 MPH, I decided it was time to test the regeneration system.
I first spun up the alternator, all went okay, I could hear it "click" in.
Then I turned on the main regeneration "system ready" switch and stepped on the brake...."click".."whirr"..COOL!!
We have REGENERATION!
Batteries being charged at a solid 10 Amps.
I was surprised at the braking effect of the Regeneration System.
The braking sensation is very strong, giving a strong addition to the power brakes of the S10.
...A Great Day!
Sep. 27, 2008
The regeneration system is working well but I am having trouble with the 15 Amp breaker tripping if I (step on the brake or use the shifter switch to) engage the regeneration when the motor speed is above 3000 RPM's.
The 15 Amp curcuit breaker will trip, rather than go to a higher rated breaker I would rather redesign the circuit to spread the recharge over the whole group of 26 batteries.
The rewound alternator will need to put out 169 volts to send a charge back into the main battery pack.
I removed the relay from the circuit and made a couple of jumpers to connect into the regeneration wiring.
For my first test of the system I left the project box open and just put some electrical tape over the exposed wiring.
I drove the truck down my street and energized the regeneration...CLICK....whurr.....AMP meter has a CHARGE reading! YES! a solid 8 Amp charge going into the 169 volt battery pack.
I did the test several times at various motor RPM's and did not trip the 15 Amp breaker.
The engagement of the alternator is good and strong at all motor RPM's and the Amp meter reads close to 15 AMP's at the initial regeneration engagment at 35 MPH. Just in case I need to install a higher rated 20 Amp DC breaker I have 2 on hand that I bought on eBay.
I concluded that this is going to work, so I removed the unneeded relay and wiring.
WOW This is so cool to get over 169 DC volts out of a rewound 12 volt alternator.